RDF and SPARQL
Version 12 introduces experimental support for importing and exporting RDF (Resource Description Framework) data as well as executing SPARQL queries — both on in-memory data as well as on remote SPARQL endpoints (RDF graph databases). RDF is the standardized, graph-based data model of the semantic web and SPARQL its query and update language. RDF uses IRIs (Internationalized Resource Identifiers) to identify resources, properties and values to allow for unambiguous representation and integration of data from different sources. In addition to support for "query strings", Version 12 provides a symbolic representation of SPARQL that facilitates writing programs that generate or operate on SPARQL.