New Entity Query Functionality
Entities are references to isotopes, food, libraries, stars and hundreds of other types of things in the world. With entities, you can retrieve data like the length and an image of a zebra; implicit entity classes allow querying for entities using constraints on property values. Entity stores allow you to register your own entities. Version 12 of the Wolfram Language extends the capabilities of the entity framework by adding support for "on the fly" properties, filtering and sorting entities by general conditions, aggregation, combining types and sampling of entity classes.
Astronomy & Space Science Entities
In Version 12, the breadth of coverage for curated data in astronomy and space science has grown significantly. These areas are now covered by many entity domains, such as observatories, satellites, space probes, planetary science, astrogeology, stellar science and galactic science. This large amount of data, combined with additional functionality to work with dates and locations, opens the door to knowledge‐based computing on astronomical scales.
Biology & Medical Entities
Version 12 has a rich collection of computable knowledge in biology and medicine. The data collections cover diverse areas, ranging from human and animal anatomy to species taxonomy to genes, mutations and diseases. Using the built-in Wolfram Language functions, key characteristics of biological systems, including the structural and functional organizations of living organisms, can be analyzed and visualized.
The Wolfram Knowledgebase contains extensive data in a wide variety of knowledge domains. Curated mathematical data, first introduced in the Wolfram Language in Version 6, is an active area of development that continues to grow both in scope and coverage. As of Version 12, more than 20 mathematical domains are covered, including curves, laminae, solids, surfaces, knots, graphs, finite groups, function spaces, lattices and more. Precomputed values for a comprehensive set of properties are available for each mathematical entity.
Version 12 provides expanded and enhanced coverage of dozens of built-in geographic entity types, from natural features like seas and mountains to manmade structures like bridges and stadiums. Entities work seamlessly with geographic visualization functions to generate custom maps showing the location or density of various features. Alignment between different entity types allows for programmatic exploration of connections between structures, geographic features, people and more, and curated data about physical and historical aspects of thousands of entities is regularly updated and expanded.
Food and Nutrition Entities
The food and nutrition data available in the Wolfram Language seamlessly integrates detailed information for tens of thousands of foods and many nutrients into the Wolfram Knowledgebase. With thousands of computable packaged food ingredient entities, powerful queries can be formed to search through more than tens of thousands of packaged foods. Additionally, curated physical data such as colors, shapes, dimensions and serving sizes is available for hundreds of food types, allowing for unlimited knowledge-based programming, data analysis and exploration.
Physics & Chemistry Entities
The Wolfram Knowledgebase contains many entity types related to physics and chemistry. In Version 12, coverage ranges from elementary particles to macroscopic physical systems, as well as formulas and physical constants, among others. Tight integration of built-in physical and chemical data with the Wolfram Language unit system and computational power facilitates modeling natural phenomena using an efficient workflow for cross-disciplinary science.
Financial and Socioeconomic Entities
Version 12 includes expanded, regularly updated data on financial markets, private and public companies and demographic and other socioeconomic data for many different types of political and administrative regions around the world. Financial coverage has been significantly improved by the addition of more than 100 properties related to public corporations, and demographic data for cities, states and other regions in the US has been updated and enhanced with better coverage of income, education and poverty statistics.
Cultural and Historical Entities
Version 12 includes expanded data in a wide range of domains related to notable people, media, language and other aspects of human history and culture. Noteworthy enhancements have been made to data about historical countries, military conflicts and linguistic-related entities, as well as ongoing expansion of curated data about and connections between notable people, books, films and musical works.